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ED 312 692 CS 506 856 

TITLE Visual Media for English Teachers: An Annotated 


INSTITUTION National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, 


NOTE 23p.; Prepared by the NCTE Commission on Media. 

PUB TYPE Reference Materials - Bibliographies (131) 

EDRS PRICE MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. 

DESCRIPTORS Annotated Bibliographies; Audience Response; 

"Computer Assisted Instruction; Film Production; 

*Film Study; Higher Education; High Schools; 

* Language Arts; Technological Advancement; 

^Television; *Visual Literacy 
IDENTIFIERS Imaging; Media Courses; * Media Education; *Media 

Literacy; Visual Communication Education 


Intended to help teachers find their way through the 
world of visual media and listing works selected by experienced 
teachers and practitioners, this annotated bibliography contains 
nearly 100 items. The bibliography is divided into sections on: (1) 
film studies; (2) television studies; (3) response and 
intertextuality; (4) video production; (5) computers and 
English/ language arts; (6) imaging; and (7) text books for media 
education. With the exception of one item which was first published 
in 1952, the selections date from 1971 to 1989. (NKA) 


* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made 

* from the original document. 

0 * 




Prepared by the Commission on Media 
of the National Council of Teachers of English 


Contributors 1 

Introduction 3 
William Costanzo 

Film Studies 6 
Ernece Kelly and William Costanzo 

Television Studies 8 
Richard Fehlman 

Response and Intertextuality 11 
Carole Cox 

Video Production 13 
Stephen Goodman 

Computers and English/ Language Arts 14 
Stephen Marcus 

Imaging 17 
Nancy Thompson 

Text Books for Media Education 18 
Michael Thomas 

Members of the NCTE Commission on Media 22 


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William Costanzo 
Westchester Community College, Valhalla, New York 

Carole Cox 

California State University, Luna Beach, California 

Richard Fehlman 
North High School, Davenport, Iowa 

Steven Goodman, 
Educational Video Center, New York, New York 

Ernece Kelly 

Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, New York 

Stephen Marcus 
University of California, Santa Barbara, California 

Michael Thomas 

Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, Quebec, Canada 

Nancy Thompson 
University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 


Where do the visual media belong in today's schools? As 
teachers of English, we recognize that young people learn 
language in an environment significantly shaped by television, 
movies, photography, graphics — forms of communication that are 
rich in visual imagery. How is the importance of these mctdia in 
our culture and in the lives of our students being reflected in 
our classrooms? 

The facts are clear. We know that more than half of all 
Americans get all their news from network news programs. We know 
that children spend more time watching television than they spend 
in formal classes. Yet how much time do we spend developing our 
students' critical viewing skills or studying how television 
works? Researchers have shown that visual thinking plays an 
essential role in how we read and write. Visual media, like 
spoken and written language, are vehicles for exchanging 
information and ideas. They are also instruments of thought: 
symbolic tools for shaping meaning. The visual imagination works 
best in collaboration with verbal skills. When we write, we often 
call on mental imagery to refine perceptions and to organize 
emerging compositions. When we read, we frequently interpret 
texts by visualizing them. Yet how often do we draw on our 
students' visual abilities to improve their reading, writing, 
listening, and speaking skills? What steps do we take in the 
classroom to strengthen the natural partnership of language, 
thought, and vision? 






The options and the needs have both increased in recent 
years. First, new technologies have given us new teaching tools. 
With lightweight camcorders supplanting the heavy video equipment 
and Super-8 film mailers of the seventies, it is now much easier 
and quicker to create visual narratives. The old term camera- 
stylo has never been more meaningful. With VCRs and laser disks 
replacing film projectors as instruments of film analysis, we can 
now give movies, television shows, and other visual texts the 
close critical attention traditionally reserved for printed 
works. Meanwhile, computers are helping to integrate visual and 
verbal elements as never before. Second, new trends in theory and 
research have offered fresh perspectives. From studies in 
semiotics, we are learning how to read the cultural codes and 
signs of visual discourse: for example, how certain images of 
women or ethnic groups are constructed and embedded in our 
advertisements, movies, situation comedies, and styles of dress. 
From ethnographers, we are learning about the influence of social 
settings on audience response. From cognitivists, we're learning 
that intelligence has multiple dimensions: musical, mathematical, 
and muscular and as well as visual and verbal. 

With so much to learn and so much to accomplish, what's an 
English teacher to do? Where do you begin once you've recognized 
the needs? where do you turn for more advice after taking the 
first steps? The NCTE Commission on Media has prepared a 
bibliography to help teachers find their way through the world of 







visual media. What we offer here is a list of books selected by 
experienced teacherr and practitioners. The section on Television 
Studies was compiled by Barbra Morris, teacher, film producer, 
and member of the University of Michigan's English Composition 
Board. The section on Film Studies was annotated by William 
Costanzo and Ernece Kelley, both of whom have taught English and 
film to community college students for many years. Carole Cox, 
known for her studies of viewer response, makes intriguing links 
between literature and film; the works she has chosen offer new 
ways to understand how students respond to visual and verbal 
storytelling. Stephen Goodman selected the books on video 
production. As director the Educational Video Center in 
Manhattan, he has provided the instruments of visual expression 
to hundreds of students and teachers in inner-city high schools. 
By no means is this bibliography a comprehensive map of the 
terrain. It offers some excellent points of entry and some 
prominent features, both venerable and new, all worth exploring 
on your own. We hope you'll take the trip. 

- William Costanzo, Director 
NCTE Commission on Media 



The wave of enthusiasm for film study that crested in the early 
1970s, then ebbed during the back to basics movement of the 
following decade, has begun to rise again, impelled perhaps by 
advances in research and technology. With the advent of VCRs, 
movies have become more popular, less costly, and easier to 
screen. Meanwhile, new scholarship in fields like semiotics, 
post-structuralism, and feminist studies have added special 
significance and sophistication to the analysis of moving images. 
The books listed here represent both ends of the movement: some 
classics and more recent contributions, all helpful for teachers 
and students who are ready for an informed excursion into the 
world of motion pictures. - William Costanzo and Ernice Kelly 

Amelio, Ralph. Film in the Classroom . Dayton: Pflaum, 1971. 
Available directly fronm the author: 8338 West Summerdale, 
Chicago, IL 60656, (A thoughtful gathering of teaching ideas, 
methods, and materials for introducing films into the school, 
based on a successful program and written by a gifted, 
experienced high school teacher.) 

Beja. Morris. Film & Literature . New York: Longman, 1979. (After 
considering the differences between fiction on the page and on^ 
the screen, Beja analyzes twenty-five popular narrative films,* 
including useful study questions and suggested readings.) 

Boggs, Joseph. The Art of Watching Film . Mountain View, CA: 
May field Publishers, 1985. (An inclusive text which avoids 
complexities and is perhaps best for the student who is generally 
poorly prepared.) 

Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson. Film Art: An Introduction . 
NY: Knopf, 1986. (A very rich text — especially in its examination 
of critical approaches to film — but because of its relative 
sophistication, it may be best suited for students and teachers 
already familiar with film and film study.) 

Cook, David. A History of Narrative Film . New York: Norton, 1981. 
(One of the most readable and dependable of the many cinematic 
histories, this volume gives a balanced, richly-illustrated 
account from the silents to the seventies.) 

Costanzo, William. Double Exposure: Composing Through Writing and 
Film . Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1984. (Here is a book 
that integrates visual and verbal forms of thinking. Based on 
years of classroom experience and informed by current theory and 
research, Costanzo shows how students can use their knowledge of 
film and television to improve their reading and writing.) 

Gianetti, Louis. Understanding Movies , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 
Prentice-Hall, 1987. (One of the most widely-used texts for 
introductory film courses, Gianetti 's book has gone through four 
editions. The fifth is scheduled for January, 1990.) 

Heath, Stephen and Patricia Mellencamp. Ci: ,iri and Language . 
American Film Institute Monograph Series, vol. i. Frederick, MD: 
University Publications of America, 1983. (If you're curious 
about the currents in modern film theory, this anthology offers 
an assortment, of articles by writers such as Mary Anne Doane, 
Teresa de L^uretis, Linda Williams, and Dudley Andrew.) 

Kael, Pauline. I Lost it at the Movies . NY: Bantam, 1965, (The 
first of Kael's collected reviews, this and others in the ever- 
growing series can be quite handy if you're looking for 
articulate responses to a particular film. Kael's views have been 
consistently influential.) 

Kawin, Bruce F. How Movies Work . New York: Macmillan, 1987. 
(Intended as a text for film appreciation courses, Kawin 's book 
is an excellent sourcebook for anyone seriously interested in 
film. Generously illustrated with frames from hundreds of movies, 
it explores film as an art, a craft, an industry, a technology, 
and a state of mind.) 

Katz, Ephraira. The Film Encyclopedia . NY: Perigee, 1979. (A 
serviceable reference for quick biographical sketches of the 
movie industry's major talents.) 

Mast, Gerald and Marshall Cohen, eds. Film Theory and Critcism: 
I ntroductory Readings . 3rd ed. New York: Oxford, 1985. 
(Successive editions of this anthology have proved to be a very 
useful sourcebook. If you're looking for a gathering of the best 
that has been thought and said about the movies, this is probably 
the most authoritative, representative collections in one 
volume. ) 

Monaco, James. How to Read a Film . New York: Oxford, 1977. 
(Without getting technical, this text takes students and teachers 
well beyond the plot and theme and introduces them to a wide 
range of approaches to film: aesthetic, technological, semiotic, 
historical , theoretical . ) 

Schatz, Thomas. Hollywood Genres . NY: Random House, 1981. (Schatz 
examines the history and patterns of popular film genres, 
including the western, gangster film, detective movie, screwball 
comedy, and musical.) 

Wood, Michael. America in the Movies . NY: Delta, 1975. (Born in 
England, Wood sees clearly into the social and political 
dimensions of American film. His view is fresh, perceptive, 
witty, and informed.) 




TELEVISION STUDIES. The historical development of television as 
both an entertainment medium and an educational tool has been 
accompanied by a great deal of critical response. This response 
comes from many sources; each represents a diverse point of view- 
-social, aesthetic, psychological, educational — and each suggests 
an appropriate methodology for studying television. The books and 
articles below were chosen to give the novice to TV study a 
general sense of these points of view and arguments. — Richard 

Key Texts 

Al len , Robert . ed . Channels of Discourse: Television and 
Contemporary Criticism . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina 
Press, 1987. (An interesting text which, through a series of 
scholarly articles, attempts to relate current critical 
approaches, like reader-response and semiotics, to television 
study. Allen does an especially nice job in his introduction, 
relating these approaches in an antithetical way to more ^ 
traditional aesthetic attitudes.) 

Barnouw, Erik. Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American 
Television . New York: Oxford, 1982. (The only history of 
television I'm aware of — and a very important one. It is an 
important text to refer to when you want to consider how the 
commercial networks evolved and how that evolution parallels the 
development of certain types of programming.) 

Fiske, John. Television Culture . London: Methuen, 1987. (Seen by 
many as THE book on television theory for the nineties, maybe 
because Fiske accomplishes two significant things. First he 
provides a thorough survey of TV study over the past ten years. 
Then he argues that, contrary to the beliefs of behavior ists and 
Marxist critics, TV does more than dupe its viewers. Rather, he 
suggests, TV offers each viewer a place to actively negotiate 
meanings between those implanted in production and those 
individually constructed during viewing.) 

Greenfield, Patricia Marks. Mind and Media. The Effects of 
Television. Video Games, and Computers . Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 
1984. (An important book for teachers since it reviews research 
dealing with the issue of television and learning; and although 
the title gives equal billing to video games and computers, most 
of the text deals with television.) 

Marc, David. Demographic Vistas . Philadelphia: University of 
Pennsylvania, 1988. (A new text, and one whose author argues — 

through the close reading of many TV texts that TV is creating 

a society of robot-consumers programmed by the ad messages of TV. 
He also argues that education — learning about how TV molds and 
presents these messages — is the only alternative to a 
dehumanizing form of mind control*) 


Additional Texts 

England, David. Television and Children . Bloomington, IN: Phi 
Delta Kapp Educational Foundation, 1984. (A short text addressed 
to the classroom teacher. England deals calmly and clearly with 
the argument that TV education is a waste of time. It is an 
interesting piece to read after something like Winn's Plug-in 
dug, which implies that TV is as socially and mentally damaging 
as any drug . ) 

Gerbner, George et al . Trends in Network Television Drama and 
Viewer Conceptions of Social Reality. 1967-1976 . Philadelphia: 
Annenberg School of Communication, 1977. (This piece represents 
the essence of what a sociocultural study looks like and what 
Gerbner and his Annenberg students are about. The book contains a 
statistical study of violence in programming during the ten-year 
period noted in the title. It is this type of study which offers 
the data often used to condemn TV for its dehumanizing effect on 
the public. ) 

Git 1 in, Todd, ed. Watching Television . New York: Pantheon Books, 
1986. (A series of articles dealing with numerous TV genres, from 
music video and soaps to Saturday morning children's fare. The 
authors here have spent time watching the programming they 
critique; their arguments are generally based on close analysis. 
Again, in most of these pieces, the audience is seen as being at 
the mercy of money-hungry network producers.) 

Gronbeck, Bruce E. Writing Television Criticism . Chicago: Science 
Research Associates, Inc., 1984. (Although this text has as its 
purpose to teach about writing TV criticism, it also teaches 
about the various approaches available to the writer of 
criticism. Gronbeck defines each and supplies examples of various 
types of both journalistic and academic criticism.) 

Kaplan, E. Ann, ed. Regarding Television - Critical Approaches: 
An Anthology . American Film Institute Monograph Series, vol. 2. 
Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, Inc., 1983. 
(An anthology of scholarly pieces which vary in their interests 
and themes. The four articles on soaps are quite interesting in 
their seriousness and diverse points of view. If you've ever 
passed off the soap as mindless tripe, you might want to work 
through these articles. ) 

Masterman, Len. Teaching About Television . London: Macmillan, 
1980. (A British import which will give you some idea about how 
far ahead of us the Brits are in taking TV education seriously. 
Masterman feels television needs to be taught, especially as a 
language, since he sees TV language as very complex, yet 
transparent for the average viewer. This book, for interested 
teachers, does have curricular ideas: how one actually goes about 
teaching about television.) 






McNeil, Alex. Total Television: A Comprehensive Guide to 
Programming from 1948 to the Present . 2nd ed. New York: Penguin, 
1984. (If you're going to talk about or study individual 
programs, especially those which are no longer being telecast, 
this is a helpful text. It supplies a short description of each 
program broadcast from 1948 to 1984, the "present" of this 
edition. McNeil also supplies individual prime-time schedules 
during this time period.) 

Newcomb, Horace. Television: The Critical View . 3rd ed. New York: 
Oxford, 1982. (Another valuable anthology of articles and book 
segments. This might be a good place to start reading since the 
pieces represent a wide variety of positions from early criticism 
to that which is more contemporary.) 

Newcomb, Horace. "American Television Criticism. 1970-1985." 
Critical Studies in Mass Communication 3 . (1986) 217-28. (A 
helpful piece if you want to get a quick overview of the critical 
movement in the U.S. In the same volume, John Fiske presents a 
similar summary of critical movements in England and Australia in 
a an article entitled "Television and Popular Culture.") 

Williams, Raymond. Television and Cultural Forms , New York: 
Schocken Books, 1975. (As you read in the area of TV criticism 
and theory, Williams' concept of "flow" will appear again and 
again. It is used to describe the nature of the TV text, not as a 
series of individual texts but as a continuous flow of never- 
ending, interconnected sequences. This is an important concept to 
think about when you talk about the real possibility of 
critically evaluating the TV text.) 

Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug . New York: Bantam, 1977. (This text 
represents much of what the average parent, administrator, ?:id 
teacher feels about television: that it has a pathological 
influence, threatening the family structure and the normal 
development of children. Winn published a follow-up text in 1987 
entitled Unplugging the Plug-In Drug , in which she carries her 
argument to its most logical conclusion: don't watch TV. 
Unplugging ia her guidebook to TV drug rehabilitation.) 





The current interest in response-centered instruction in 
literature has evolved from varied theoretical perspectives in 
the field of literary criticism. Of particular interest to 
educators have been ideas from a reader response perspective 
which suggest that the role of the reader, or perceiver, is as 
important as the text, or artifact. New research and ideas are 
also emerging from an examination of intertextual and 
autobiographical connections reponders make as they read or view 

The response process may also be viewed as a way of knowing 
through the many forms of representation of reality, and a way of 
becoming literate through experiences with the many forms of 
"literariness" possible in our culture today. Such a perspective 
shifts focus from print-only experiences, to include non-print, 
visual media, and all other mediated experiences in the lives of 
learners. Perspectives from the field of reponse and inter- 
textual ity offer educators a means to consider the media as an 
integral part of students' educational experience. - Carole Cox 

Key Texts 

Bruner, Jerome. Actual Minds, Possible Worlds . Cambridge, MA: 
Harvard, 1986* (Bruner moves among the worlds of cognitive 
psychology, philosophy, narrative, and literary arts to examine 
questions about the nature of knowledge, mind, and reality. He 
considers the human imagination as a means to make experience 
meaningful, calling this activity the "narrative mode." What he 
says has equal relevance for the media arts.) 

Cooper, Charles R., ed. Researching Response to Literature and 
the Teaching of Literature . Norewood, NJ: Ablex, 1985. 
(Contributing authors discuss many aspects of theory and research 
in response to literature, which may be applied to thinking about 
the media arts. Auhtors include Norman Holland, Louise 
Rosenblatt, Alan Purves, Arthur Applebee, Howard Gardner, Richard 
Beach, David Bleich, et al .^ 

Corcoran, Bill and Emrys Evans. Readers. Texts, and Teachers , 
Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1986. 


Probst, Robert E. Response and Analysis: Teaching Literature in 
Junior a nd Senior High School . Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook & 
Henieman, 1988. (These two texts discuss response-centered 
instruction in secondary schools, which could include film and 
television as text as well.) 




Rosenblatt, Louise M. The Reader, the Text, the Poem; The 
Transactional Theory of the Literary Work . Carbondale, IL: 
Southern Illinois University, 1978. 


Rosenblatt, Louise M. Literature as Exploration . 3rd ed., New 
York: Modern Language Association, 1984. (Rosenblatt's 
transactional theory of reader response is egalitarian enough to 
embrace all forms of what she calls "J iterariness. " This would 
incllude all the media as well as literary arts. Many possible 
implications for teaching are embedded in her theory.) 

Further Readings 

Rosenblatt, Louise. "What facts does this poem teach you?" 
Language Arts . 57 (4), 1980, 386-94. 

. "Acid test in teaching literature." English Journal . 45 

(2) . 1956, 66-74. 

. "The aesthetic transaction." Journal of Aesthetic 

Education . 20 (4), 1986, 122-28. 

. "Viewpoints: Transaction versus interaction — a 

terminological rescue operation. Research in the Teaching of 
English . 19 (1), 1985, 96-107. 

I have found all of Rosenblatt's articles particularly useful in 
thinking about the role of film and television in the lives of 
children, and with many possible implications for curricular and 
instructional design. The article "The aesthetic transaction" 
specifically explains her theory as one which includes all texts, 
or artifacts — such as comics, film, television, and the visual 
arts — as means for children to represent their own view of the 





Here are some useful books for a high school video production 
course. Most provide adequate descriptions of the technique , 
concepts, and process involved in planning and producing a video 
tape. Some are mors technical than others, but there is enough 
for teachers to pick and choose according to their particular 
needs. — Steven Goodman 

Bensinger, C. , ed. The Video Production Guide . (Covers all 
organizational and equipment facets of studio and remote 
locationa productions.)* 

Gaskell, A. and D. Englander. How to Shoot a Movie and Video 
Storv . (Covers the simple sequence and its variations: the 
establishing shot, panning shots, editing, and more.)* 

Kybett , Harry . Video Tape Recorders . Indianapo lis : Howard W . Sams 
& Co., 1987. (Explains the worksings of VCRs and VTRs in all 
formats, from 1/2-inch to 2-inch.) 

Milerson, Robert. The Techniques of Video Production . (A widely- 
used textbook that discusses the whys and hows of all phases of 
TV production.)* 

Traister, Robert J. Make Your Own Professional Home Video 
Recordings . (How to select equipment and set up a studio to make 
quality productions.)* 

Williams, Richard L. Television Production: A Vocational 
Approach . Sandy, Utah: Vision Publishing Company, 1988. (7* basic 
textbook that covers a variety of topics including lighting, 
special effects, and scriptwriting. ) 

*The books that do not have a publisher listed may be ordered 
from Comprehensive Video Supply Corporation in New Jersey by 
calling 201/767-7990 or 800/526-0242. 





Early research on computer use in education suggested that the 
majority of teachers "were resistent, a small minority 
enthusiastic, and the rest .cautiously apathetic." 

Times have changed. The short list of printed resources below 
provides only one indication of the growth in interest and vision 
on the part of computer-using English and language arts teachers. 
Interested faculty should also check with local Department of 
Education offices for technology frameworks or curriculum guides. 
Regional and national conferences for computer-using teachers are 
also excellent resources for teaching ideas, printed materials, 
software reviews, etc. (Many of the periodicals listed below 
feature lists of such events.) 

The most immediate, and probably the best, source of help is from 
computer-using colleagues in your own school and district. 
Together you can sustain and nourish your attempts to use the 
technology to get the best out of your students and tLe best out 
of yourselves. — Stephen Marcus 

From the NCTE 

Chew, Charles, ed. Computers in the English Program: Promises and 
Pitf falls . 1984. (Wide range of topics for incorporating 
computers instruction . ) 

Davis, Ken, ed. The Computerized English Class . 1983. (Discusses 
practical applications with an emphasis on the teaching of 
writing. ) 

Halpern, Jeanne and Sarah Liggett. Computers and Composing: How 
the New Technologies are Changing Writing . 1984. (Discusses how 
the effecvs of new technology can be incorporated into 
instruction. ) 

Rodrigues, Dawn and Ray. Teaching Writing With a Word Processor, 
Grades 7-13. 1986. (Guidelines and sample lessons for using word 
processors and software resources.) 

Se 1 f e , Cy nth ia . Computer-Assisted Instruction in Composition: 
Create Your Own! 1986. (A handbook for developing materials.) 

Stanford, Sally, et al . Computers in the English Classroom: A 
Primer for Teachers . 1983. (General introduction to computers and 
their uses. ) 

Wresch , Will iam , ed . The Computer in Composition Instruction . 
1984. (Trends, issues, and in-depth descriptions of software. 
College level.) 




Other Books 

Balajthy, Ernest. Microcomputers in Reading and Language Arts . 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989. (A college text 
for teachers and future teachers.) 

Blanchard, Jay, et al . Computer Applications in Reading . Newark, 
DE: International Reading Association, 1987. (Brief introduction 
to issues, Extensive annotated bibliography and resource guide. 
All grade levels.) 

Chandler, Daniel and Stephen Marcus, ed. Comnputers and Literacy . 
Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1984. (Issues and trends, 
elmentary grades through college level.) 

Costanzo, William. The Electronic Text: Learning to Read, Write , 
and Reason with Computers . Educational Technologies, 1989. (How 
computers are changing the essential nature of literac^ . 
Discussion covers issues, trends, and applications. K-Adult.) 

Daiute, Colette. Writing and Computers . Reading, MA: Addison- 
Wesley, 1985. (Issues and trends. Examples of applications from 
primary grades to college.) 

Edwards, Bruce. Processing Words . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- 
Hall, 1987. (A college-level composition text for students using 
word processors.) 

Franklin, Sharon, ed. Making the Best of the Literature, Writing, 
Word Processing Connection . Collection of the best of The Writing 
Notebook (see below). 3an Francisco: 1988. (Numerous 
appl icat ions , issues , trends . K-College . ) 

Gerrard, Lisa, ed. Writing at Century 's End . New York: Random 
House, 1987. (Issues and Trends. College level.) 

Knapp, Linda Roehrig. The Word Processor and the Writing Teacher . 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1986. (Issues and Trends. 
Writing activities for elementary through junior college) . 

Literature and Computers . Vol. XV, No. 1 of College Literature . 
West Chester, PA: West Chester University, 1983. (Issues and 
trends. Descriptions of software.) 

Marcus, Stephen. The Computer Writing Resource Kit: Faculty 
Handbook . Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1986. (Advice and strategies 
for integrating word processing into college composition 
courses. ) 

Mitchell, Joan. Writing With a Computer . Boston: Houghton- 
Mifflin, 1989. (A college-level composition text for students 
using word processors.) 




Schwartz, Helen. Interactive Writing . New York: Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston, 1985. (A college-level composition text for students 
using word processors.) 

Schwartz, Eileen and Edward Vockell. The Computer in the English 
Curriculum . New York: Mitchell Publishing/Random House, 1988. 
(Issues and trends, Descriptions of applications. Grade 7- 
College. ) 

Wresch, William. A Practical Guide to Computer Uses in the 
English /Language Arts Classroom . Englewood Cliffs, NJ- Prentice- 
Hall, 1987. (Discussion and examples of numerous applications.) 

Periodicals . 

The ACE Newsletter . K-College. Assembly on Computers in English, 
NCTE, 1111 Kenyon Road, Urbana, IL 61801. (Emphasis on practical 
applications, projects, and issues.) 

The Writing Notebook: Creative Word Processing in the Classroom . 
K-College. P.O. Box 79, Mendocino, CA. (Emphasis on practical 
applications, projects, and issues. Slightly misnamed since it 
deals with more than just word processing.) 

General Interest: 

The Computing Teacher . ICCE, University of Oregon, 1787 Agate 

St., Eugene, OR 97403. 
Classroom Computer News . 2451 River Road, Dayton, OH 45439. 
Electronic Learning . 730 Broadway, New York, NY 10003. 

Academic Journals: 

Academic Computing . P.O. Box 804, McKinney, TX 75069. 
Compute rs and the Humanities . Paradigm Press, 4370 S. Tamiami 

Trail, Sarasota County, FL 33581. 
Computers and Composition . Department of English. Illinois State 

University, Normal, IL 61761. 
Machine-Mediated Learning . Taylor & Francis, 3 East 44th Street, 

New York, NY 10017. 
Educational Technology . 720 Palisade Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 


Educational Technology . 1311 Executive Center Drive, Suite 220, 

Talahassee, FL 32301. 
Computers in the Schools . The Hayworth Press, 75 Griswold St., 

Binghamton, NY 13904. 
Journal of Computer-Based Instruction . Miller Hall 409, Western 

Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225. 
Journal of Eduational Computing Research . 120 Marine Street, Box 

D, Farmingdale, NY 11735. 
Technological Horizons in Education . P.O. Box 17239, Irvine, CA 







Mass visual-aural media have swept across twentieth century 
communications. Photography, film, TV, computers, and their 
variations have made us more aware than ever of visual and aural 
images and their role in thinking. These media externalize 
pictures and sounds that seem to be similar to what we experience 
internally as imagery. 

Imagery's verb, imaging # is the skill we have of picturing or 
hearing something in our minds, such as the mental pictures we 
form when we dream or read a novel. Metaphorically we can think 
of imaging as a mental cathode ray tube that turns electro- 
chemical brain activity into what it is we are conscious of when 
we think. Knowing about imaging, we can devise learning 
strategies that take advantage of this mental skill. We can 
practice and perfect our imaging capability to make it more 
useful for our thinking strategies. 

Each of the books in the bibliography which follows stimulated 
some facet o; the thinking that has led me from my study of media 
to the conclusion that imaging may be a general mental ability 
related to much of our thinking. — Nancy S. Thompson 

Arnheim, Rudolf. Visual Thinking . Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1971. (Working with the visual because that's 
the sense this artist-psychologist knows best, Arnheim explores 
the concept that visual perception is actually cognitive 
activity. He singles out the senses of vision and hearing as the 
media par excellence for the exercise of intelligence. In the 
absence of sensory perception, mental images are the mental 
abstractions available to the mind for thinking.) 

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind . NY: Basic Books, 1983. (Gardner 
defines and discusses the seven kinds of intelligence that he and 
his colleagues have identified in their work at Harvard's Project 
Zero: musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, the interpersonal 
ability to work with other people, the intra-personal ability of 
self knowledge, as well as the two basic intelligences of which 
we are most aware, the linguistic and logical-mathematical.) 

Gendlin, Eugene T. Focusing . NY: Bantam, 1982. (University of 
Chicago psychologist Gendlin' s technique of focusing is actually 
a way of putting the imaging capability to worK. Rather than the 
customary use of visual imagery, focusing uses the imagery of 
bodily sensations to guide the thinker to insightful recognition 
of problems or situations. Through reading this accessible little 
book, one can learn and practice the six movements that can be 
applied to any problem situation.) 




Ghiselin, Brewster, ed. The Creative Process , NY: New American 
Library, 1952. (Subtitled "A Symposium," this fascinating book 
brings together thirty-eight accounts, in their own words, of 
famous thinkers' inventive processes, including Einstein, Jung, 
van Gogh, Poincare, and Mozart. These accounts of creative 
thinking reveal that imaging is the basis for creativity and 
thinking in general.) 

John-Steiner, Vera. Notebooks of the Mind . NY: Harper and Row, 
1985. (John-Steiner 's material came from her exciting interviews 
with one hundred creative thinkers in different disciplines, with 
a conscious attempt on her part to represent women thinkers in a 
field that has usually been dominated by men. She weaves together 
theoretical analyses with descriptive accounts gathered from the 
interviews. ) 

Richardson, Alan. Mental Imagery . NY: Springer, 1969. (Richardson 
presents a cogent discussion of developments in the study of 
imagery and the activity of imaging. He is interested in how 
discoveries in other fields, such as neurology, are throwing 
light on "the doctrine of imaging." The book reviews empirical 
research relating to the basic nature of imagery and to the role 
imagery plays in other cognitive processes, such as perception, 
remembering, and thinking. The appendix includes two tests for 
imagery . ) 

Paivio, Allan. Imagery and Verbal Processes . NY: Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston, 1971. (Paivio 's book is known for its distinction 
between imagery and verbal language as two basically different 
kinds of mental processing. My reading of this book started me in 
the direction of wondering what general mental process underlies 
the mental processing of both imagery and language.) 

Rose, Steven. The Conscious Braxn . NY: Random House, Vintage 
Books, 1976. (Anyone interested in learning about how the brain 
works might choose this readable account. It provides a general 
knowledge of the biology of the brain. Imaging will be more 
accessible to researchers and learners when its biological basis 
can be understood.) 

Sacks, Oliver. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat , NY: Summit 
Books, 1985. (This is a collection of personal stories — not just 
impersonal case histories — of interesting humans with mental 
aberrations, told by a doctor who cares about his patients. These 
fascinating stories give the reader a deep personal understanding 
of mental disorders, many of which involve the patients' 
imagery. ) 



Perkins, D. N„ The Mind's Best Work . Cambridge, MA: Harvard 
University Press, 1981. (Perkins presents his study of 
creativity — a mental ability that must be considered in any 
education-related study of thinking. One of the valuable 
discussions of the book focuses on his explanation and discussion 
of protocol analysis as a method of studying creative thinking.) 

Salomon, Gavriel. Interaction of Media, Cognition, and Learning . 
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1979. (Salomon puts forth the idea 
that media are made up of a network of symbol systems. Each 
medium draws upon some set of these symbol systems, and exposure 
to that medium develops the mental skills related to the symbol 
systems it employs. What I have taken from Salomon is th« concept 
that the internal mental representation of a medium's symbol 
systems is what I refer to as imaging; visual imaging as a way of 
thinking is activated and developed by the visual media. 
Salomon's book is especially important for its emphasis on 
constructing theoretical bases for media research.) 

Sheikh, Anees and Katharina. eds. Imagery in Education . 
Farmingdale, NY: Baywood Publishing Co., 1985. (The authors have 
collected articles that present the history of imagery in 
education, and they report research which can be put to work in 
educational situations. This book follows the idea put forth by 
Salomon that the skill of imaging can be improved through 
practice. It recognizes the fact that imaging is universal.) 

Shepard, Roger and Lynn Cooper. Mental Images and Their 
Transformations . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982. (Shepard and his 
associates were some of the first to create designs for 
experimental studies based on observable behavioral evidence to 
show the existence of internal mental activities. Their series of 
experiments described in this book involves the measurement of 
time it takes to make a mental transformation of an image. Their 
purpose was to present evidence of the actual existence of 
imagery by showing how it works.) 

Stp.vick, Earl. Images and Options in the Language Classroom . NY: 
Cai oridge University Press, 1986. (A book of practical exercises 
and suggestions for teachers of foreign language that can be read 
alone and practiced or used in groups. In addition, it covers 
theoretical ideas that imagery practices are based on; for 
instance, the author ties his definition of imagery to the 
concept of schemata. Stevick suggests that the role of 
communication is to stimulate images in the receiver's mind.) 





A number of media texts open on the question "Why teach the 
media?" indicating that the newer shapes of literacy are still 
drawn in the margins of the curricula of many schools and 
colleges. But there are encouraging signs that "the electronic 
suburbs around the city of Caxton 11 are being lit. One cf the 
signs is the appearance of good textbooks to serve teachers in 
this field. The following list contains a range of approaches 
from the most theoretical to the very practical. -Michael Thomas 

Allen, Robert, ed. Channels of Discourse . Chapel Hill, NC: 
University of North Carolina Press, 1987. (A study of various 
kinds of media analysis, with chapters on semiotic criticism, 
Marxism, feminism, and other timely preoccupations.) 

Berger, Arthur A. Media Analysis Techniques . Newberry Park, CA: 
Sage, 1982. (This is Volume 10 in a series called Comtexts, and 
is a guide to the techniques of media interpretation.) 

Bernards, Neil, ed. The Mass Media: Opposing Viewpoints . St. 
Paul, MN: Greenhaven Press, 1988. (On the principle that it is 
better to debate a question without necessarily settling it than 
to settle a question without debating it, this text identifies 
key questions on media bias, media effects, and media control, 
then presents articles in direct opposition to one another on 
some aspect of each issue. The book is marred only by some 
unnecessary, inept, and misnamed "critical thinking activities" 
for students. ) 

Biagi, Shirley. Media/ Impact . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Inc., 1988. 
(Written for university undergraduates, this text is also useful 
for college and senior high school students. It includes media 
history, media economics, a discussion of public relations, and a 
valuable appendix of media information sources from which 
students can conduct research. ) 

Carpenter, Donna. Media Images and Issues . Don Mills, Ontario: 
Addison-Wesley, 1989. (Another book of articles on the media, 
including media articles to analyze, with the difference that 
this text offers much more opportunity to respond in the media, 
to create media statements about media issues.) 

Duncan, Barry. Mass Media and Popular Culture . Toronto: Harcourt 
Brace Jovanovich, 1988. (A read-and-respond text, set in the 
context of shopping malls, fast food, and ephemeral trends like 
cabbage patch kids.) 





Kaplan, E. Ann. Rocking Around the Clock . NY: Rout ledge, Chapman 
& Hall, 1987. (Subtitled "Music Television, Postmodernism and 
Consumer Culture," this study of Music Video as a market 
phenomenon and a sign of a new phase of consumer culture has 
detailed analyses of rock videos which raise questions of sex 
stereotyping. ) 

MacLean, Eleanor. Between the Lines: How to Detect Bias and 
Propaganda in the News and Everyday Life . Toronto: University of 
Toronto Press, 1981. (A guide to the perplexed on ways of 
deconstructing the news as presented on T.V., radio, and the 
newspaper . ) 

Manoff , R. and M. Schudson, ed. Reading the News: A Pantheon 
Guide to Popular Culture . NY: Pantheon, 1987. (Six critics, 
journalists, and academics write about the relativity of 
reportage, or the politics of news in the press and on 
television. ) 

Masterman, Len. Teaching the Media . London: Comedia, 1985. (A 
good text for media teachers. Masterman presents what might be 
called an emergent European consensus on the rationale and 
approaches to media education. His main focus is on three points 
in the rhetorical nexus: source of information, techniques for 
controlling meaning, and cultivation of audiences.) 

Mogel, Leonard. Making It in the Media Professions . Chester, CT: 
Globe Pequot, 1988. (A text for guidance teachers and career 
advisors about job opportunities in television, radio, films, the 
print media, and advertising.) 

Rice, Susan and Rose Mukerji, eds. Children Are Centers for 
Understanding Media . Washington, DC: Association for Childhood 
Education International, 1973. (This is still a useful text for 
school teachers showing what has been and what can be done by way 
of exploring sound and images, making flip books, cut-out 
animation, story boarding, creating a TV channel, and a grab-bag 
of media activities for younger children.) 

Schrank, Jeffrey. National Textbook Company, 1979. Skokie, IL: 
Understanding Mass Media . (Probably familiar to all media 
teachers, this is a lively, project-based text a decade old and 
still viable. ) 




The Commission on Media, 1989 

William Costanzo (Director) 
Westchester Community College 
Valhalla, New York 

Dorothy Farthing 

DeKalb County School System 

Decatur, Georgia 

Richard Fehlman 
North High School 
Davenport, Iowa 

Ernece B. Kelly 

Kingsborough Community College 
Brooklyn, New York 

Gerald Lesser 

Harvard Graduate School of Education 
Cambrdige, Massachusetts 

Jonathan Love 11 

San Jose State University 

San Jose, California 

Stephen Marcus 
University of California 
Santa Barbara, California 

Pamela A. McCarthy 
Hoover High School 
North Canton, Ohio 

Barbra S. Morris 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

W. Michael Reed 

West Virginia University 

Morgantown, West Virginia 

Michael Thomas 

Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal 
Quebec, Canada 

Jeff Golub (Executive Committee Liaison) 
Shorecrest High School 
Seatt le , Wasthington 

Charles Suhor ^NCTE Staff Liaison)